An investigation into the “42 months” of Revelation 11-13

POST OVERVIEW. (3rd post) A continuing investigation (see post #616, 1/29/2023) into the “42 months” of Revelation 11-13 (and Daniel 7:25 and 12:7). OBJECTIVE. To discover the meaning of the “42 months” and to interpret these passages occurring during the “42 months” so that we have a clearer picture of the events of Revelation.

PREVIOUS STUDY IN THIS SERIES

We began this study (post #615, 1/27/2023) by comparing Daniel 7:21 with Revelation 11:7 and 13:7, making some observations about these verses, and then drawing some conclusions about what we saw (see #615 for details). In our last post (#616, 1/29/2023) we expanded our portions for investigation to include the passages around the original three verses. In that portion of our study, we observed that all three of our study passages (Dan. 7:21-22, 25-27; Rev. 11:3-12; 13:1-10) mentioned a period of time which we have called the “42 months.” We noted that this time period, the “42 months,” appeared significant as an end-times concept. We then found four other occurrences of that same time period, one more in Daniel and three in Revelation 11-13, and are digging deeper into those verses to see where they lead.

The four other passages are:

  • In Dan. 12:7 “a time, times, and half a time”
  • In Rev. 11:2 “forty-two months”
  • In Rev. 12:6 “1,260 days”
  • In Rev. 12:14 “a time and times and half a time”

A CAREFUL LOOK AT FOUR NEW PASSAGES ABOUT THE “42 MONTHS”

In our last post (#616), we made some general comments about the “42 months” and now we want to look carefully at each of these new passages (see above). Our plan is to look at the context of each “42 months” passage and try to identify interpretive clues from each.

DANIEL 12:7. In Daniel 12:7, we encounter the phrase “a time, times, and half a time,” which we have already identified as “42 months” (see Dan. 7:25). So, even before we begin to investigate this verse, we can see that it links directly to Dan. 7:25 and also to Rev. 12:14, because those two verses use the identical expression for the “42 months.”

The immediate context of the “42 months” phrase is an answer to the question, “How long until the end of wonders?” “For a time, times, and half a time.” But the answer goes on. “And as soon as to finish (literal translation) shattering the power of the holy people, all these will be completed.” My interpretation of this immediate context is that the holy people (i.e., the church) will be shattered for “42 months,” and then the end will come (“be completed”). This interpretation is strengthened by its agreement with the events of Dan. 7:25. If this interpretation is correct, it says that the church will be severely persecuted for “42 months” near the end of the age and then the end will come.

We just looked at the very narrow context of the verse where this occurrence of the “42 months” appears but looking at a larger context of Daniel 11-12 tells us more. In Daniel 11, we read of the activity of the “despicable person” (11:21; the antichrist), who meets his end after “he pitches his tent between the sea and the beautiful Holy Mountain” (Dan. 11:45). This phrase is figurative language for Armageddon (see Ezek. 38:14-18; Rev. 16:14, 16; 20:8-9). Then in Dan. 12:1, we see the great tribulation of the church (Matt. 24:21), then Dan. 12:2 tells of the Resurrection, and finally Dan. 12:7 places all these events in or around the “42 months” at the end of the age.

SUMMARY. This occurrence of the “42 months” includes a manifestation of the antichrist who subjects the church to persecution, which culminates in Armageddon when the church is rescued by Resurrection. Then the antichrist comes to his end (11:45).

REVELATION 11:2. This is the most spartan of the “42 months” occurrences, and the context is difficult to determine. After giving a picture (Rev. 11:1) that reminds us of the measuring of the temple scene from Ezekiel 40-42, we discover that “the nations will tread underfoot the holy city for forty-two months” (Rev. 11:2). My interpretation of this scene is consistent with others like it in the “42 months,” namely that the nations (under the leadership of the antichrist; Rev. 13:7-8) will oppress and persecute (“tread under foot”) the church (“the holy city”) for (or during) the “42 months.”

We should also note that this verse links directly to Rev. 13:5, because these two verses use the identical expression for the “42 months,” namely, “forty-two months.” This direct link confirms that the events surrounding Rev. 11:2 are related to the events surrounding Rev. 13:5.

That’s enough for one post. We will continue to explore other occurrences of the “42 months” by looking at Rev. 12:6 and Rev. 12:14 in our next post.

Soli Deo gloria            rmb                 1/30/2023                   #617

Suffering and tribulation in the book of Revelation

POST OVERVIEW. A survey of the book of Revelation considering the instances of suffering (“tribulation”) in the book and planning for our response of perseverance.

Spectacular! Awesome! Terrifying! Amazing! Glorious! These are words that readily come to our minds as we read through the book of Revelation. This portion of Scripture contains some of the most breathtaking images and events in the entire Bible. In fact, because these vivid images and these clashes between the forces of evil and righteousness capture our attention, it is possible to miss one of the most prominent features of Revelation, namely, the suffering of the church of Jesus Christ. But once we begin to examine the book through the lens of suffering, and specifically the tribulation of the church in the world because we follow Jesus, we realize that the suffering church is a prominent theme in Revelation.

EXPERIENCING TRIBULATION AND REQUIRING PERSEVERANCE

At the beginning of the book, as John introduces his prophecy in Revelation 1:9, he already speaks of “tribulation” (Greek θλῖψις – thlipsis) and “perseverance” (Greek ὑπομονή – hupomonay).

I, John, your brother and fellow partaker in the tribulation and kingdom and perseverance which are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.

Let’s explore these words for a moment. The word here translated as “tribulation” is a common New Testament word. It is usually translated as “tribulation,” but can also be rendered “affliction,” “oppression,” or “distress.” The overwhelming majority of uses of this word refer to the church or to a specific believer suffering for their faith in Jesus. And this is its use here. John the apostle, as “a partaker in the tribulation,” is writing to his fellow partakers in the tribulation. The message is clear: if you would be a witness “of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus,” then you must be prepared to be a fellow partaker in the tribulation. Affliction, distress, and tribulation are simply an expected part of being a follower of Jesus. If you would follow Jesus, you should expect to suffer.

Tribulation necessitates perseverance. What does John mean by “perseverance?” “In the NT, this is the characteristic of a man who is not swerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings.” Also implied in this word is the idea of ongoing and patient endurance. In other words, “perseverance” means remaining fixed on the mission or purpose or goal in the face of trials and sufferings, even sufferings that are persistent and that show no signs of abating.

Now, since John begins his prophecy with references to tribulation and perseverance, and since he implicitly encourages and exhorts his fellow partakers in the tribulation to persevere in their testimony of Jesus, it could be argued that one of the main purposes of Revelation is to encourage believers to persevere and be faithful until death (2:10), regardless of their tribulations. Revelation contains much about the suffering church, but if the church expects persecution (2 Tim. 3:12; John 15:18-20) and if the church is steeled to persevere, then our tribulations pose no threat.

INSTANCES OF SUFFERING IN REVELATION

With our study of tribulation and perseverance as a background, we will now survey the occurrences of suffering in Revelation.

  • We have already seen Revelation 1:9 where John himself is a fellow partaker in the tribulation. In war, officers are not exempt from death. Just so, in the gospel advance, apostles are not exempt, but rather serve as examples.
  • The church at Smyrna (2:8-11) is one of the two churches not called to repent by our Lord. Smyrna is a suffering church (2:9-10) who is called to be faithful until death (2:10).
  • In Revelation 6:9-11, we encounter “those who had been slain because of the word of God and because of their testimony” (see 1:2, 9). These souls are told to rest for a little while longer until the full number of martyrs is completed. These believers had already persevered even to a violent death and there were others who would also be faithful until death who would join them in heaven. But notice that their suffering yielded a white robe (6:11).
  • We meet the two witnesses in 11:3-12. These two represent the persecuted church that is faithful even in the face of intense opposition. They faithfully finish their testimony and then are overcome and killed by the beast (11:7). The world rejoices in their deaths, but that celebration is short-lived as the witnesses are taken up to heaven in the cloud.
  • The next chapter, chapter 12, is all about the activity of the dragon (Satan) as he pursues and persecutes “the woman,” who represents the oppressed church. “The woman” flees into the wilderness to hide from the dragon (12:6, 14) and appears to avoid direct persecution by her flight. This chapter shows that there will come a time when believers will be hunted and pursued, but the Lord will protect them.  
  • The tribulation of the church becomes intense and overt in chapter 13 as the beast and the false prophet (“another beast” 13:11) rise to power. In addition to blasphemies against God and a desire to be worshiped, the beast also “makes war with the saints and overcomes them” (13:7) and puts many in prison (“captivity”) and kills many with the sword (13:10). Then the false prophet (“another beast”) “causes as many as do not worship the image of the beast to be killed” (13:15) and prevents those who do not have the mark of the beast from buying (food) (13:17).
  • Next, we see the kings of the whole earth gather together under the leadership of the beast and the false prophet (16:13-16) for the war of the great day of God, the Almighty. This is Armageddon (16:16). Although the interpretation of this passage is quite complex, the basic idea is that the forces of evil, led by the beast, are gathered together for the annihilation of the church. We see this same picture in 19:19 and in 20:8-9.
  • There is suffering during the thousand years, as well (20:4-6), for there we see “the souls of those who had been beheaded because of the testimony of Jesus and the word of God” (see also 1:2, 9; 6:9; 12:11).

Thus we see that, in the book of Revelation, the church militant is the church in tribulation, but we are exhorted to persevere and be faithful until death (2:10) and by so doing, we will receive our reward, the crown of life (2:10).

Soli Deo gloria            rmb                 1/19/2023                   #613

Reading “Revelation” #4 – Principles to consider

POST OVERVIEW. One ofa series of posts giving principles for reading and interpreting Revelation chapters 4-20, which is the most difficult section of the book. This fourth post of the series deals with general principles to keep in mind as you approach the interpretation of the book. Previous posts in series: Post #590 (11/21), Post #592 (11/26), Post #593 (11/28)

SERIES DESCRIPTION. The book of Revelation is probably the most difficult book of the Bible to interpret correctly, and the main difficulties of the book are in chapters 4-20. Because of these interpretive difficulties and because many Bible teachers have offered conflicting and bewildering ideas about what the various passages of Revelation 4-20 mean, many earnest believers know just enough about the book of Revelation to be confused and intimidated by it. To clear up some of this confusion, in October 2021, I published my book, The Last Act of the Drama: a guide to the end times.

Now, a year later and before the 2nd edition of that book, I want to offer to readers of this beautiful prophecy a series of posts giving principles and guidelines for how to understand and interpret Revelation so that the book becomes a delight instead of a burden.

Interpreting the complex visions of Revelation 4-20 is made more manageable when the reader understands both the purposes for the book of Revelation and principles for navigating the text. Purposes and principles are KEY CONCEPTS which place much-needed limitations on the reader’s options for interpretation and thus reduce the feeling of intimidation. In the last post (#593, 11/28/2022), we had explored four purposes for Revelation. In this post, we will go on to look at general principles about the book.

PRINCIPLES

These principles are really just general ideas or truths about Revelation that help the reader understand where the boundaries of interpretation lie.

PRINCIPLE. Because Revelation is the last book in the inspired canon, it is the book in the Bible that is most “dependent” on the rest of Scripture. By that I mean that the events and actions and characters in Revelation must harmonize with and be consistent with all the other teaching of the Bible. There cannot be a conflict between the timing of an event in Revelation and the timing of that same event in other books of the Bible. For example, we know from Jesus’ teaching in the gospel of John that the general resurrection of all believers occurs on the last day (John 6:39, 40, 44, 54; also, 11:24). Therefore, in Revelation, the general resurrection of all believers must occur on the last day.

Because of this principle, a given interpretation of a passage in Revelation must be examined to see if it conflicts with an existing text of Holy Spirit-inspired Scripture. If a conflict is discovered, the interpretation must be rejected and replaced by one that removes the conflict. All Scripture is God-breathed and the Holy Spirit does not breathe out conflict.

PRINCIPLE. There is nothing profoundly new in Revelation. Remember that Revelation is the last book of the Bible and so it functions as the last book of the Bible. This means that, in this book, we are “landing the plane.” We are pulling together all the threads of the tapestry to show that the masterpiece was always an integrated and cohesive and intricate whole. Revelation is drawing the story to its intended ending and resolving all the plots. Many references and allusions are made to the Old Testament to reveal how these prophetic foreshadows are now fulfilled in the glorious return of the Lord Jesus, in the glorification of all His saints, and in the terrible judgment of all the reprobate. Therefore, in Revelation the persistent question is, “Where have we seen this before?” and is not, “What does this new teaching mean?” Again, there is nothing profoundly new in Revelation.

PRINCIPLE. Revelation presents no new biblical doctrine. This flows as a corollary from the previous statement. The last book of the Bible is not the place to put new doctrinal teaching.

PRINCIPLE. The book of Revelation presents no new major events. All of human history has already been presented in other biblical books. There is no major new event or era which was excluded from the previous sixty-five books of inspired Scripture that suddenly appears in Revelation. But, when I say that Revelation presents no new major events, I do not mean that it presents no new events at all. Remember from our previous study that one of the purposes of Revelation is “to fill in the blanks.” There are many details of the 42 months and even of the last day that require the introduction of minor events. The trumpet warnings (Rev. 8-9), the casting of Satan into the abyss (Rev. 20:3) and then down to the earth (Rev. 12:9, etc.), the persecution of the church by the beast (Rev. 11:7; 13:7), the battle of Armageddon (Rev. 16:13-16; 19:19; 20:9), even the period of the 42 months itself (Rev. 11:2, 3; 12:6, 14; 13:5) are all details that fill in blanks, but these minor events fit into what we already know of history without requiring an entirely new timeline.

Human history between the advents is already set: the risen Jesus ascended after commissioning the church and now sits at the Father’s right hand (Psalm 110:1) awaiting the time of His return. The church is gathering in the elect as she perseveres as sheep in the midst of wolves (Matt. 10:16). The church is proclaiming the gospel, baptizing those who believe, and teaching them to obey Jesus (Matt. 28:19-20). This will continue until the last day when the general resurrection occurs and Jesus returns and the reprobate are judged. Then comes the new heavens and the new earth. That is the flow of biblical history and has been the flow of the grand drama since human history began. Revelation, as the last book of the Bible, is not the place to introduce some new history.

PRINCIPLE. There are no major characters in Revelation whom we have not met before in Scripture. We have known the dragon (Satan, the devil, the serpent) since he tempted Adam in the garden. Of course, we have known about the Lord Jesus ever since we were told about the serpent-crusher in Genesis 3:15. Jesus has been foretold, He has been Incarnate, He has accomplished His work by dying on the cross for His people, He has been raised from the dead, and He has ascended. In Revelation 5, He enters heaven as the returning, victorious Lamb and in Revelation 19:11-16, He returns to earth on a white horse to tread out the wine press of the wrath of God the Almighty. So, we know the Lamb.

In Revelation 13, we meet the beast, but he is simply the final and most vivid manifestation of the antichrist, the human embodiment of wickedness and evil. We have met him several times before. He is the little horn (Daniel 7:21-26), the small horn (Daniel 8), the prince who is to come (Daniel 9:26-27), and the despicable person (Daniel 11:21-45). We have seen him as Gog, the chief prince of Meshech in the land of Magog (Ezekiel 38-39) and we encountered him in 2 Thess. 2:3-12 where he appears as the man of lawlessness.

The point here is that there are no new major characters in Revelation.

This consideration of principles will be continued in the next post.

SDG                 rmb                 11/29/2022                 #594

Reading “Revelation” (#3) Keeping the purposes in mind

POST OVERVIEW. One ofa series of posts giving principles for reading and interpreting Revelation chapters 4-20, which is the most difficult section of the book. This third post of the series deals with the importance of keeping the purposes of the book of Revelation in mind as you approach the interpretation of the book.

Previous posts in series: Post #590 (11/21), Post #592 (11/26)

SERIES DESCRIPTION. The book of Revelation is probably the most difficult book of the Bible to interpret correctly, and the main difficulties of the book are in chapters 4-20. Because of these interpretive difficulties and because many Bible teachers have offered conflicting and bewildering ideas about what the various passages of Revelation 4-20 mean, many earnest believers know just enough about the book of Revelation to be confused and intimidated by it. To clear up some of this confusion, in October 2021, I published my book, The Last Act of the Drama: a guide to the end times.

Now, a year later and before the 2nd edition of that book, I want to offer to readers of this beautiful prophecy a series of posts giving principles and guidelines for how to understand and interpret Revelation so that the book becomes a delight instead of a burden.

THE PRINCIPLES AND PURPOSES OF “REVELATION”

“Where do you begin?” There are so many images and ideas circling around in Revelation 4-20 that it is hard to know where to begin trying to interpret this series of prophecies. And this becomes even more daunting if these ideas and images represent new concepts and characters which we have not seen before in the Bible. So again, where do we begin?

This very important question is made much more manageable when the reader understands the purposes for the book of Revelation and then is able to keep those purposes in mind as he navigates his way through the text. There are also principles regarding Revelation which place limitations and boundaries on the reader’s interpretive options. These are KEY CONCEPTS for understanding Revelation which we will explain and then will illustrate with examples.

PURPOSES

There are four primary purposes for Revelation 4-20: To fill in some blanks, to connect some dots, to present the ultimate example of ideas or characters, and to highlight or emphasize biblical ideas.

  • Fill in some blanks. By the time we reach Revelation, the Bible has already presented the course of history and has told how things are going to proceed all the way to the new heavens and the new earth. We know that, toward the end of the age, lawlessness and persecution of believers will increase. We know that all believers, living and dead, will be resurrected on the last day. We know that Jesus will return in power and glory to gather His saints and to judge the living and the dead. But there are many questions about how all this takes place that Revelation answers. The whole story is already complete, but Revelation fills in many of the missing details. These details again demonstrate that God has ordained all the events of history even until the last event of the last day, and He will surely bring these events to pass. Some examples of “details” include: the 42 months as a separate short time period at the very end of the age; the binding and release of Satan; the battle of Armageddon; the idea of trumpet warnings; and a clearer picture of the intermediate state with the “souls” in heaven in Revelation 6:9-11 and 20:4-6. KEY CONCEPT: Filling in missing details.
  • Connect some dots. Another challenge in considering the events of the end of the age is that it feels like there is a lot going on at once. In previous Scripture, we have read about “that day” and “the day of the LORD” but we have not been told the order of the events of the last day. Revelation connects some of those dots so that the student of eschatology can assemble the sequence of events. During the 42 months we hear the blasts of the trumpet warnings and we see stars falling from heaven, we witness the dragon (Satan) thrown down to earth and the beast rising to power while the false prophet (“another beast” in Revelation 13:11ff) proclaims the wonders of the beast. But how do these fit together? How does this “dot” connect with that “dot”? KEY CONCEPT: The text of Revelation helps us connect the dots.
  • Present ultimate (final) examples. One of the purposes of Revelation is to present to us the full and final example of characters and events we have seen before. For instance, in Revelation 13 we meet the beast coming out of the sea. This is the ultimate example of the human antichrist, whom we have seen in Daniel 7, 8, 9, and 11; in Ezekiel 38-39; and in 2 Thessalonians 2. In Revelation we also see the final awesome pictures of the last day (6:12-17; 11:13-18; 14:17-20; 16:1-11, 17-21; 18:1-24; 20:10-15), the day that has been foreshadowed since the flood (Genesis 6-8) and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19). Thus, Revelation presents some final examples.
  • Highlight or emphasize biblical ideas. Revelation also has the purpose of highlighting biblical ideas. The church will undergo tribulation throughout the age. Man is a rebel and, without the Lord, will continue to blaspheme and do evil. There is certainly coming a last day when Jesus Christ will return to pour out the wrath of God. Jesus Christ is the victorious Lamb of glory, the King of kings and the Lord of lords and He will reign forever and ever. Pay close attention to what Revelation highlights.

The student of Revelation will be well-served by keeping these purposes in mind as he makes his way through the text. Remember that Revelation does not introduce major new events or new characters. Rather, Revelation is filling in details to the existing structure of redemptive history. The thought to keep in mind is that this last book of the canon is summing up the teaching and concluding the story. This perspective makes interpreting Revelation less intimidating. Revelation is not building a new house but is laying the flooring in one room and is putting up drywall in another room. Filling in details and connecting dots. Giving the final examples and highlighting key points. These are the purposes of Revelation.

Since that is the case, the best way to prepare to study Revelation is to be crystal clear on what the Bible has already presented. The more you know about the existing geography of Scripture, the more readily you will recognize Revelation’s additional details and the more accurately you will be able to place them on the biblical map.

This post has focused on the purposes of Revelation. The next post will discuss key principles regarding Revelation which place limitations and boundaries on the reader’s interpretive options.

SDG                 rmb                 11/28/2022                 #593

Reading “Revelation” #2 – Where does this event fit?

POST OVERVIEW. One ofa series of posts giving principles for reading and interpreting Revelation chapters 4-20, which is the most difficult section of the book. This second post of the series will address the question of where a given event fits in terms of what happens before that event and what happens after it.

Previous posts in series: #590 (11/21)

SERIES DESCRIPTION. The book of Revelation is probably the most difficult book of the Bible to interpret correctly, and the main difficulties of the book are in chapters 4-20. Because of these interpretive difficulties of the book and because many Bible teachers have offered conflicting and bewildering ideas about what the various passages of Revelation mean, many earnest believers know just enough about the book of Revelation to be confused and intimidated by it. To clear up some of this confusion, in October 2021, I published my book, The Last Act of the Drama: a guide to the end times.

Now, a year later and before the 2nd edition of that book, I want to offer to readers of this beautiful prophecy a series of posts giving principles and guidelines for how to understand and interpret Revelation so that the book becomes a delight instead of a burden.

In the previous post on reading Revelation 4-20, post #590, we had discussed two main ideas. First, we made the statement that Revelation, like almost all biblical prophecy, is not written in chronological order and it is a mistake to read Revelation 4-20 as if these events were arranged chronologically. Second, we suggested that the reader of Revelation must repeatedly ask the question, “WHEN DOES THIS EVENT TAKE PLACE?” and must use keen observation of the text and thorough knowledge of Scripture to supply answers to that question. An interpretation of Revelation 6 was given as an example of this technique.

WHAT EVENT(S) ARE BEFORE THIS AND WHAT EVENT(S) ARE AFTER?

Another important question to answer when reading Revelation, is, “WHAT IS THE SEQUENCE OF THESE EVENTS?” That is, “WHAT OCCURS BEFORE THIS EVENT AND WHAT OCCURS AFTER?” For example, we know that the general resurrection of all believers, the living and the dead, occurs on the last day (John 6:39, 40, 44, 54; 11:24). The logical conclusion from this fact means that all events that do not occur on the last day necessarily occur before the general resurrection of all believers. Thus, “the thousand years” (Rev. 20:1-6), all the events of the 42 months (Rev. 11:2, 3; 12:6, 14; 13:5), the great tribulation (Daniel 12:1; Matt. 24:21), the rise of the beast and the false prophet (Rev. 13), the trumpet warnings (Rev. 8, 9), the first through fifth seals (Rev. 6), and the binding of Satan in the abyss (Rev. 20:1-3) all occur before the general resurrection.

Notice what was done in this example. First, a significant known fact was presented: Jesus declared that the resurrection will occur on the last day. Then logic was applied: if the resurrection occurs on the last day, then all the events of the end times that do not occur on the last day occur before the resurrection. Then we listed some specific end-times events which occurred before the resurrection.  

Another example of this arranging of events is the understanding that Armageddon (Rev. 16:13-16) occurs just before the coming of Jesus Christ (παρουσία) in Rev. 19:11-16. This understanding is based on the interpretation that Jesus returns from heaven just in time to rescue his bride, the church, from annihilation due to persecution (Rev. 11:7; 13:7). In the Armageddon passage, we observe that all three members of the unholy trinity, Satan (the dragon), the beast, and the false prophet (Rev. 16:13), are active in gathering the kings of the whole world together for “the war of the great day of God” (Rev. 16:14). Since Satan is active in gathering the kings, it is apparent that he has been released from the abyss (Rev. 20:3, 7), and since Satan has been released from the abyss, it means that “the thousand years” have ended (again, Rev. 20:3, 7). Also, in this scene of Armageddon, the beast has obviously appeared (see Rev. 13:1-10), as has the false prophet (“another beast” in Rev. 13:11ff). Notice that, according to Rev. 13:5, the beast appears during the forty-two months. Finally, since Satan (the dragon) is active after “the thousand years” are completed (Rev. 20:7) and the beast is active during the 42 months, we can conclude that the period of the 42 months occurs after “the thousand years.” These observations and conclusions constitute a significant collection of facts about the sequencing of the events of the end times which can be applied to other passages of the book.

Notice again what was done in this example. We made observations of the details of the passage (Rev. 16:13-16). From those observations we made logical conclusions. We discovered that, for the battle of Armageddon, Satan has been released from the abyss, the period of “the thousand years” has ended, the 42 months is coming to a close, and the last day is imminent.

One more observation should be made about this four-verse section of Rev. 16. As stated above, the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet are gathering the kings of the earth for “the war of the great day of God, the Almighty” (Rev. 16:14) and they are gathering them at the place called Armageddon (16:16). This “great day of God” must certainly be the last day and it is obvious from the text that this day will occur in the very near future. What is the precise sequence? My personal interpretation of these events is that the gathering together of the kings and their armies (Rev. 19:19) takes place at the very end of the 42 months and that Armageddon is the war that occurs on the last day.

SUMMARY

Once again, we have seen that careful observation of details coupled with reasoned logic and knowledge of the Scripture allows the student of Revelation not only to discover when these events occur, but also to postulate a sequence of those events.

SDG                 rmb                 11/26/2022                 #592

The 42 months* of Revelation: a crucial end times concept

INTRODUCTION. The book of Revelation is the source of almost all of the Bible’s teaching about the 42 months*. (NOTE: The 42 months* is the name that I give to the time period of forty-two months’ duration that falls between the “thousand years” and the Last Day in the Bible’s end times timeline. It is figurative in duration, meaning that the 42 months* lasts approximately three-and-a-half years. The 42 months* appears five times in Revelation 11-13 in three expressions: forty-two months, time and times and half a time, and 1,260 days.) This post explores how to grasp the concept of the 42 months* and thus how to gain a better understanding of Revelation and the flow of the end times.

THE FLOW OF THE LAST DAYS

First, it is necessary to grasp the flow of the last days. (Much of this material is better understood by referring to my book on the end times called The Last Act of the Drama, available from Amazon.) Because of much well-intentioned but incorrect teaching on the end times in general and on the book of Revelation specifically, many (most?) Bible students are confused by both. To remedy that situation takes some work, but that work begins by understanding the general flow of the last days.

The three recognizable components of the last days are the “thousand years,” the 42 months*, and the Last Day, also known as “the day of the LORD” and “that day.” The “thousand years” (Rev. 20:1-6) begins with Christ’s ascension (Acts 1:9) and is the time when Christ’s church is gathered in as the gospel is proclaimed. This “relatively literal” time period (not literally one thousand years, but rather a very long time) ends with the release of Satan from the abyss (Revelation 20:3, 7). This begins the period of the 42 months*, which is a period of intense eschatological activity that prepares the world for the return of Jesus. Whereas the purpose of the “thousand years” was the ingathering of the elect into the church, the purpose of the 42 months* is to purify and cleanse the gathered church by persecution. The duration of the 42 months* is also “relatively literal,” meaning that it is not a long time like a thousand years, but is rather only a few years, probably less than a decade. The 42 months* ends when the forces of wickedness under the leadership of the beast attempt to annihilate the church at Armageddon (Rev. 16:16). This initiates the Last Day. The events of the Last Day are relatively easy to discern from the Scriptures. Once the Resurrection, the return of Christ, and the temporal destruction of all the unrighteous occur, The wicked are then judged finally and forever at the Great White Throne. This ushers in the new heaven and the new earth when time is no more and the righteous are forever with the Lord in heaven (Rev. 7:9).

THE LAST DAY IN SCRIPTURE

The Last Day (“that day”, “the day of the LORD”) is presented literally and figuratively in many places in the Bible, in both Old Testament and New. The final presentation of the Last Day in Revelation (19:11-21, etc.) serves mainly to fill in the final blanks and to put the last threads in the tapestry and to paint the last paint-by-number voids so that the whole effect is felt.

THE “THOUSAND YEARS” IN SCRIPTURE

The “thousand years” is the normal state of most of the time between Christ’s ascension and His Second Coming. This is the long time of the great ingathering of those who have been chosen for salvation (Ephesians 1:4), the time when the church rides out with the bow of the gospel, conquering and to conquer (Rev. 6:1-2). The Great Commission has been issued by the King (Matthew 28:19-20) and Jesus has also defined the church’s task (Acts 1:8), so that the work is clear. Most of the Bible’s instruction is intended for this “thousand years” as the church is built up and sanctified through the ordinary means of grace.

BUT THE 42 MONTHS* . . .

In contrast with the “thousand years” and the Last Day, the 42 months* are rarely mentioned in the Scriptures and when these events do appear, they are often not recognized due to a poor understanding of the teaching about the 42 months* in Revelation. For example, if the believer does not understand Armageddon from Revelation 16, 19, and 20, then he will not perceive that Ezekiel 38 and 39 foreshadow that event. Another example is the beast who rises from the sea in Revelation 13. If you do not understand the events of Revelation 13, then you will not see that the figures presented in Daniel 7, 8, 9, and 11 are types of the beast and thus foreshadow his activity.

So, to repeat, the book of Revelation contains almost all the Bible’s teaching on the 42 months*. But unless the Bible student grasps that the 42 months* exists as a distinct time period of the end times and unless the student has a general idea of the events of the 42 months*, the book of Revelation is likely to be very confusing.

HOW TO GAIN AN ACCURATE VIEW

The question, then, is, “How is the Bible student to gain an accurate understanding of the end times as presented in the Bible?” In my opinion, this involves a two-step process.

The first step is the more difficult and involves setting aside one’s current understanding of end times and of the book of Revelation. Of course, “your current understanding” is the result of years of Bible reading and so is hard to relinquish, but it is flaws in your current understanding that have produced your confusion about these passages. Rather than trying to correct your current view, the easiest thing to do is to set aside the whole thing for the moment and explore an entirely different view.

The second step is easier, but is not easy, and that is to carefully read through my book on the end times, The Last Act of the Drama. Starting with definitions of key end-times concepts, the book establishes a foundation for how to view the flow of the end times and then explores many key passages to show how the pieces fit together and form a beautiful and integrated whole. Special attention is given to the interpretation of Revelation so that the Bible student can confidently explain what the major passages mean and can see the sequence of their occurrence. Thus, the end times events are made clear.

SDG                 rmb                 2/21/2022                   #491

Biblical Prophecies and Eschatology

One of the most distinguishing marks of the Bible is its many prophecies about the future. In this, the Bible is unique among all books ever written. No other book, and certainly no other “religious book,” contains anything like biblical prophecy, but in the Bible, prophecy is common. The Bible makes predictions about things that are going to take place centuries or even millennia in the future, and then those prophecies come to pass.

Another distinctive of the Bible is the God-centered worldview it contains from Genesis to Revelation. Part of this God-centered worldview is the concept that history is linear. “History is linear” means that God has determined the beginning of history and God has also appointed the end of history. God is eternal, but His creation is not, and things will not endlessly go on as they are. Jesus Christ is coming back, and so the creation is hurtling toward the end at the rate of sixty seconds a minute.

Combining the idea of “prophecy about the future” with the concept that “there is an end to history,” we arrive at a working definition for eschatology: The study of the Bible’s prophecies about the end-times (also known as “last things”). This article will consider end-times’ prophecy and some thoughts about how to do that study.

What is the purpose of a prophecy? A prophecy is given in the Scriptures so that, when that prophecy is fulfilled, it will again be demonstrated that God is the one who has planned all things (Romans 4:21) and that He is able to fulfill the prophecies that He makes. “Our God is in the heavens; He does whatever He pleases (Psalm 115:3).” For this reason, when God makes a prophecy in His Word, He not only guarantees the fulfillment of that prophecy, but He guarantees that the fulfillment of the prophecy will be recognized. For example, in Isaiah 7:14, the LORD made a prophecy that “The virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel.” Then, more than 700 years later, God fulfilled that prophecy in the virgin birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem (Matthew 1:23). The virgin, Mary, was with child and she bore a Son, Jesus, who was Immanuel, “God with us.” Prophecy made. Prophecy fulfilled and prophecy recognized. And this pattern, of “Prophecy made – Prophecy fulfilled and prophecy recognized,” is repeated literally hundreds of times, especially regarding the first advent of Jesus Christ. Prophecies made. Prophecies fulfilled and recognized.

Now, the prophecies about the first advent of Jesus have all been fulfilled, because Jesus Christ appeared in the flesh almost 2,000 years ago. But there are many prophecies in the Bible that are still unfulfilled because those prophecies are concerning Jesus Christ’s Second Coming at the end of the age. Even though these prophecies of Jesus’ return are yet unfulfilled, their purpose is the same as the purpose stated above and their guarantee is the same as the guarantee above. God has written prophecies about the end of the age for the purpose of proving that He has planned all things and that He is able to fulfill the prophecies that He makes. God is glorified by making then fulfilling prophecies. This also means that, since God has made these end-times prophecies about the end of the age and the return of Christ, He has guaranteed their fulfillment and has guaranteed that their fulfillment will be recognized.

These two ideas about prophecy, that end-times prophecy will fulfill God’s purpose and that all end-times prophecies are guaranteed fulfillment and recognition, justify the effort involved in discerning the meaning and the timing of the end-times prophecies in the Scriptures. Since all the prophecies of the end of the age will certainly be fulfilled, then the disciple of Jesus is encouraged to “make careful searches and inquiries seeking to know when we can anticipate the revelation of Jesus Christ (adapted from 1 Peter 1:10-13).”

While making careful searches and inquiries, it must also be acknowledged that the study of eschatology is hard work, and there are special challenges when studying end-times’ prophecy.

  1. The first thing to try to figure out is if this vision or passage is about the end of the age or about Jesus’ return at all, or is it about something else entirely?
  2. What is the nature of the prophecy? Since many of the prophecies about the end of the age and the return of Christ are given in figurative, apocalyptic language, it can be difficult to discern what is being prophesied. Discerning this is critical, for if the nature and meaning of the prophecy are not correctly discerned, then it is impossible to recognize the prophecy’s fulfillment.
  3. Understanding prophecy demands a thorough knowledge of all of Scripture. The more Scripture you have in your head, the more material the Holy Spirit has to use in showing related words and phrases and visions. Also, a deep familiarity with the whole Bible helps you to understand the language and the idiom of Scripture.

All these steps in exegesis require skill, prayer, and patience. Skill means gathering good exegetical tools and learning to use them well. Prayer is needed for the Holy Spirit’s insight. Patience keeps you moving forward in the study and prevents giving up. And all of this is meaningful because prophecy glorifies God. So, we willingly sacrifice ourselves (Romans 12:1) to see what God has prepared for those who love Him (1 Cor 2:9).

WHAT PROPHECIES ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?

We have established that God will certainly fulfil the prophecies He makes in His Word. Guaranteed. Our task is to identify God’s prophecies in the Scriptures and then interpret them such that they form a cohesive picture. So, what are some of the prophecies we need to examine in our study of the end-times? A partial list follows.

Resurrection * (1 Thess. 4)                             The Seventy Weeks (Daniel 9)

The apostasy (2 Thess. 2)                               The man of lawlessness (2 Thess. 2)

The beast (Rev. 13)                                         The false prophet (Rev. 13, 16)

The 144,000 (Rev. 7; 14)                                 Time, times, and half a time **

Forty-two months **                                      1,260 days **

The trumpets (Rev. 8-9)                                  The seals (Rev. 6)

The “four horsemen” (Rev. 6)                        The battle of Armageddon (Rev. 16)

The bowls of wrath (Rev. 16)                          The two witnesses (Rev. 11)

The “thousand years” (Rev. 20)                      The great white throne judgment (Rev. 20)

The little horn (Daniel 7)                                 The small horn (Daniel 8)

The rider on the white horse (Rev. 19)           The lake of fire (Rev. 19; 20)

NOTE “Millennium” = “thousand years”      * Resurrection includes “the rapture”

** These three expressions are what I refer to collectively as the 42 months*.

And there are others, but the main point is this: God has placed these prophecies in His Word for His glory. They will certainly come to pass, and they will be recognized. This is what makes the study of eschatology so exciting and rewarding.

SDG                 rmb                 2/11/2021